Protocol for Conducting Measurements of Radon and Radon Decay Products in Multifamily Buildings Protocol for Conducting Measurements of Radon and Radon Decay Products MAMF 2017 Introduction in Multifamily Buildings i MAMF Scope Summary and Introduction This standard of practice contains procedures, minimum requirements and general guidance for measurement of radon in buildings having more than one attached dwelling or other occupied unit that were under the same ownership or designated maintenance or management authority for the purpose of determining if radon mitigation is necessary in order to protect current or future occupants. These protocols address testing in multifamily structures that can include those with shared ownership or maintenance such as co-op units, townhouses, condominiums or vacation timeshare properties and structures, or a portion thereof that are used, for example, as apartment houses, dormitories, military congregate residences, fraternities and sororities, nontransient boarding houses, hotels, convents, monasteries, motels and live/work units. These protocols also address testing a single dwelling within a multifamily building. Included are informational pages for an “Introduction to Radon” and an “MAMF Companion Guidance” document for aiding residence managers, citizens and professionals. Significance of Purpose Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the general population and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. 1 Most people receive their greatest exposure to radon in their home or dwelling. Radon concentrations in ground-contact apartments have been found to be similar to those in low-rise residential buildings located in the same area. 2 Radon in homes and dwellings is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. 3 This risk is largely preventable. Significance of Use This document contains protocols and guidance designed to respond to the health threat of radon in dwellings in multifamily buildings. This standard addresses the needs of citizens, radon measurement professionals, property owners, residence/facility managers, consultants, manufacturers and regulators concerned with radon measurements in multifamily buildings. Applicability If the minimum requirements of this document exceed local, state or federal requirements for the locale in which the radon test is conducted, then this document’s minimum requirements should be followed. These guidelines can be adopted as part of a state program or can be provided as recommendations by states to testing companies and 1 World Health Organization, “WHO Handbook on Indoor Radon: A Public Health Perspective” 2009 2 Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, “Radon in Estonia Dwellings, Stockholm” 2003; and Valmari, T, Arvela, T and Reisbacka, “Radon in Finnish Apartment Buildings, Radiation Protection Dosimetry” 2012 3 National Academy of Sciences, “Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation” (BEIR VI Report) 1999 interested individuals. AARST recommends that any authority or jurisdiction that is considering substantial modifications of this document as a condition of its use seek consensus within the consortium process at AARST Consortium on National Radon Standards prior to adopting a modified version. This provides the jurisdiction with a higher degree of expertise and an opportunity for the Consortium on National Radon Standards to update its document if appropriate. Historical Perspective on Radon Since 1988, the Indoor Radon Abatement Act has authorized U.S. state and federal activities to reduce citizen risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon concentrations. Since the early 1990s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advised all U.S. schools to test for radon and to reduce levels to below 4 pCi/L. 3 In 1999, the National Academy of Sciences confirmed that any exposure to radon holds a degree of risk with publication of BEIR VI. 3 In addition, the Academy’s BEIR VII committee stated that exposure to radiation, including any concentration of radon, carries risk. In 2009, the World Health Organization’s WHO Handbook on Indoor Radon confirmed the association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at the relatively low radon levels found in residential buildings. 1 Initiated in 2010, the U.S. Federal Radon Action Plan (FRAP), followed by the National Radon Action Plan (NRAP), has highlighted an ultimate public health goal of eliminating preventable radon-induced cancer. The FRAP is the result of a collaborative effort led by EPA with the U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS), Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), Energy (DOE), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Interior (DOI), Veterans Affairs (VA) and the General Services Administration (GSA). And the NRAP, led by the American Lung Association, represents a collaborative effort between several federal and national organizations including AARST and the Conference of Radon Control Program Directors (CRCPD). Development and Maintenance of this Standard The consortium consensus processes developed for the AARST Consortium on National Radon Standards and as accredited to meet essential requirements for American National Standards by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have been applied throughout the process of approving this document. This standard is under continuous maintenance by the AARST Consortium on National Radon Standards for which the Executive Stakeholder Committee has established a documented program for regular publication of addenda or revisions, including procedures for timely, documented, consensus action on requests for change to any part of the standard. The change submittal form and instructions may be obtained in electronic form at www.radonstandards.us.